Saturday, March 14, 2020
Planning for public administration Planning refers to working out in an extensive outline, things that need to be done as well as the methods of doing them to achieve the determined organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. It can also be referred to as looking into the future and coming up with decisions on what should be done depending on the occurrence of events. Planning is one of the most significant roles in administration as it sets the prototype of other activities to be pursued.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Planning for public administration specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is accorded dominance with the reason that it is the first role that is performed and its outcomes are the plans that dole out as the direct for the actions of staff members. In an administration some plans are made to serve a given project while others are relatively permanent in nature hence referred to as standing plans which include procedures, policies as well as methods. In its simplest form planning is an activity that can be carried out by any associate of the administration as it encompasses setting missions, objectives as well as acts of achieving them. Planning in a broad spectrum engrosses making decisions as well as choosing future of actions from the set out substitutes. In public administration planning is crucial as it bridges the gap flanked by where an administration is and where it intends to be in future and therefore it calls for bringing in new things as well as workable implementation strategies. In a public administration without planning, actions are aimless. It plays a great role in ensuring that the members know their purposes, tasks, the guidelines to follow as well as their objectives in the administration for an efficient flow of the desired goals. Planning encompasses a range of constituents which include; Developing strategies and plans. Formulation of decision making processes. Establishing goals. Evaluation of environmenta l resources. In public administration there are various merits that come hand in hand with planning. Some of them include supplying the organization with firm administration as well as with financial structure for a proficiently change from the developer control. This is specifically done via setting up goals that are effective as well as attainable. Such goals engross evading huge assessments and also staying away from special assessments. To come up with such firm management, the set out goals must contribute to continuation of satisfied plans as well as a tress-free organization. Another merit in a public administration is that the owners have a right to be heard in organization administration.Advertising Looking for essay on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also serves as a prepared technique to collect ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ contribution in addition to setting off fact- based techniques as well as aims by which the organization gathers this key in. Planning also has great merits to the administrator since it supplies the director with a calculated base for creation of human resource choice (Adams 1982). Planning also allows the manager to look forward to modify to a certain extent than being astonished by actions, as well as supplying tactical schemes for tackling at hand and also predictable personnel concern. It also helps in attaining measurable programs and results that is, by recognizing in quantifiable conditions what the government aims to achieve as well as basing prospect budgetary verdicts on realizing those objectives. To pull off this assessable line up, the management has to ensure that only the right employees are on board and the necessary apparatus, spur and structures are made obtainable. The responsibility to work efficiently in any enterprise is also brought by managerial success in planning. The administration is also in a position to deal with analyti cally concerns that drive workforce via planning. A major merit in planning in a public administration is that the managers as well as the programs are made more valuable. It is also through planning that the directors are endowed with deliberate basis for human resource administration managerial that is intended at attaining program objectives. Planning in a public administration also assists the manager with the required data when making premeditated choices. The associations are also in a position to venture statistically as well as make strategies for putting back vanished competencies. In public administration planning has merits in a way that it provides the management with a gear to take in hand the changes in line up way that impacts the kind of work being carried out as well as giving the manager an opportunity to make out ways in which skills can change proficiencies required in the administration. In a broad line of attack, planning has a great advantage in facilitating d eveloping progression of the associationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives, evading the traps of linear philosophy, recognizing chances, generating alertness of hindrance to winning through over, facilitating control and also approximating associationÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, directing and also uniting efforts and motivating thinking with the aim of improving the organization resources (Bathgate 1956).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Planning for public administration specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, there are several weaknesses that may arise from planning within the public administration. To begin with, is deprived scheduling. When planning is poorly done, the achievement of the set goals and objectives by an institution is not reached hence the chances of losing increase. Secondly, it is the lack of links between guiding principles assembly, setting up and accounting. Planning in any organization must review the relationship flanked by the policies making, planning and budgeting. This is because the three conditions go hand in hand in any strategizing for the communal management of an association. Underprivileged spending run is another weakness of planning. An already made plan may fail due to poor expenditure control of the resources available. Managers should be very keen on spending to avoid these failures. In addition, insufficient financial support of continuation and functioning of an enterprise is another weakness that is found in planning of public organizing. Moreover, lack of proper accounting systems is a fault to any public administration set up. In conclusion, small relationships between budgets as formulated and the budget as executed, unreliability in the flow of budgeted funds to agencies and to lower levels of government, unfortunate management of outer aid, scarce coverage of financial recital, deprived cash management and defectively motivated staff are other types of w eaknesses that may arise as a result of planning for public administration. In any planning, weaknesses should not exceed the merits (Bhasin 1976). This is because, when disadvantages are more than advantages the plan loses its purpose naturally. Managers of different organization are called upon to strictly follow the process of organizing wisely to avoid feebly implementation of a plan. In order to accomplish the set procedures in any public administration, proper planning of time allocation should be put into consideration bearing in mind that moment wasted is never recovered. References Adams, M. E. (1982). Agricultural extension in developing countries. Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex: Longman.Advertising Looking for essay on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bathgate, F. (Ed.). (1956). Experiment in extension-The Goon Sathi. London: Oxford. University Press. Bhasin, K. (1976). Participatory training for development. Bangkok: FAO.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Refugees and Migrants - Essay Example It is the differences in leaving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country which makes a person labeled as a refugee, migrant, immigrant, asylum seeker, or a safe-haven seeker. But they all share one common fact. They are aliens in a foreign country and hold second class status to the people who were born in that state. We should start of first by understanding what is basically a refugee and a migrant. A refugee is defined as an individual who has forcefully been made to leave his home country due to a fear of being persecuted or feeling his life to be threatened. Refugees are often outcasts in their home country due to a difference in race, religion, nationality, or being part of a social group which is not accepted by the current government. But not all refugees are in such a state due to human influences. People escaping famines and pestilence are also included into the broad category of refugees (NCCA 2008). A migrant, however, is defined as a person who leaves his/her country in search of better jo bs (Dictionary.com 2008). They leave their country using their own discretion without any influences such as coercion or force. This can clearly give a picture between the distinction between the two groups of people. While refugees are fleeing their country to save their own lives and lives of their families, migrants basically leave their countries to find work. The difference lies in the motivation for leaving their country. Before basically delving into the argument as to why migrants and refugees should be handled differently we will try to see what arguments are placed for considering them as one and the same. Many sources, usually egalitarian in nature, argue that since both groups of people are displaced from their home countries they should be welcomed by any new society and provided support. A policy known as "non-refoulement" exists, an international policy, which aims at protecting the rights of refugees. According to this policy people who have become refugees and arrive at a new state are not to be returned back to their home states and should be openly welcomed. 140 states have signed the non-refoulement policy which makes them prime states for refugees to seek a new life in (Jose Riera). But that is one of the only few valid arguments given by anyone. Because other than that, in reality a feature noted in most developed nations is that their laws, if at best not hostile towards refugees, are often biased to the nature of being cruel. For example, in an article by amnesty international's Australian edition it states how even though Australia has signed a number of treaties which enforce it to treat refugees well but in truth these refugees are detained in places where the Australian law is not valid hence these refugees cannot even demand non-refoulement since the policy is not valid in that area (Mark 2007). The reason why we such instances in newspapers of people being detained and arrested when trying to cross the border into another country is that it is becoming more and more difficult for the host country's to manage the inflow of these immigrants/refugees. The sheer volume of the incoming people is a burden on most countries who now, not only have to meet the needs of their own citizens but must also take care of these new people who are not always productive factors for the country. The refugees require lodging, sustenance and shelter which are costs the host country must bear. Not only that, but finding new jobs and work opportunities for these new people is also a taxing job for the government. In recent years there is also a security risk in permitting foreign individuals with no proper documentation and records into
Monday, February 10, 2020
New Health Medical Systems Memo - Research Paper Example Staffing should incorporate specified basic rules which play a part in managing the human resources of an organization. New Health Medical Systems should have a durable staffing strategy which will be significant in attaining its objectives.The strategic decision of placing advertisements in the local newspapers and contacting staffing agencies that specialize in placing technicians into healthcare facilities is extremely significant for New Health Medical Systems. This will help in creating awareness among the qualified technicians. Organizing a job fair for local professionals to attend will also be essential for New Health Medical Systems. The job fair will enable the organization to analyze technicians who are qualified from the ordinary ones. New Health Medical Systems will receive numerous applications from technicians coming from different regions due to the job fair and visiting professionals. The final strategy of offering a $1,000 signing bonus to anyone who joins the organ ization and stays for at least 180 days is novel but ineffective as it will enhance the expenditure of the organization.The management of New Health Medical Systems should provide training for its current employees and put forward an offer for them. Also, any member of staff who recommends a qualified technician should get monetary rewards. This will help in developing and acquiring qualified technicians. The organization should employ all forms of media so as to adequately advertise the vacant positions.... There is need for appropriate forecasts regarding possible employee transfers, retirements, and turnover outside the zone. Training employees in the organization is a basic step for filling positions which are not required instantly. Staffing should incorporate specified basic rules which play a part in managing the human resources of an organization. New Health Medical Systems should have a durable staffing strategy which will be significant in attaining its objectives (Conaty & Charan, 2011). The strategic decision of placing advertisements in the local newspapers and contacting staffing agencies that specialize in placing technicians into health care facilities is extremely significant for New Health Medical Systems. This will help in creating awareness among the qualified technicians. Organizing a job fair for local professionals to attend will also be essential for New Health Medical Systems. The job fair will enable the organization to analyze technicians who are qualified from the ordinary ones. New Health Medical Systems will receive numerous applications from technicians coming from different regions due to the job fair and visiting professionals. The final strategy of offering a $1,000 signing bonus to anyone who joins the organization and stays for at least 180 days is novel but ineffective as it will enhance the expenditure of the organization. Recommendations The management of New Health Medical Systems should provide training for its current employees and put forward an offer for them. Also, any member of staff who recommends a qualified technician should get monetary rewards. This will help in developing and acquiring qualified technicians (Boudreau & Ramstad, 2007). The organization should employ all forms of media so as to adequately
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Hierarchical in organization Essay The most essential yet fundamental thing to remember with the Japanese in terms of business is their giving significance to personal relationship first before business considerations. Putting enough time and resources for relationship building is necessary for achieving success in business. Japanese business structure is hierarchical in organization with specific roles to perform. Team work and group orientation are ways of life observed in all corporate life at all levels. The Japanese do not really engaged themselves in formal trainings on teambuilding; they are just by nature collectivists that use the consensus approach in all issues of concern. Strength and purpose of any Japanese business organization came from the sense of belongingness. Involvement and commitment in the workplace are based primarily from compromise and collaboration in terms of decision making. Top-down approach, where the flow of information comes from subordinates and forwarded to higher-ups is the Japanese management style. Therefore, the policy is always initiated at the middle management. This approach is advantageous, because everyone in the company took active involvement in the creation of rules and procedures. For the Japanese being a valuable boss is not founded on having strong personality and being influential. Humbleness and non-aspiring must be the maintainable characters of any manager as he climbs the ladder of the hierarchy. A Japanese manager should always be available at all times and ready to contribute his expertise without hesitation to his people. Excellent management and teamwork can be attained through a harmonious employer-employee rapport. In meetings, being punctual is a sign of respect for the Japanese. Although, it is very hard to conclude the finality of a decision in terms of time, because they always think in a consensus style, patience is much needed. Before the start of any meeting, attendees usually talk about non-business topics such as food, hobbies, and health etc to set up the relationship-building process, which is necessary for the success of the business meeting. Wa or harmony is at all times part of any meeting. Debates, confrontations and disagreements are to be avoided, though at time indispensable in searching for a solution. Since reaching a decision should undergo a process of consensus-building plus the conservation of Wa, endurance in time is really important. During serious meeting, bringing in humor is considered out of place. The biggest issue of worry when undertaking business transaction with Japanese is communication difficulties. What Japanese publicly says in words and what he really thinks is often contradictory; that causes trouble and confusion to the non-Japanese in terms of conversation. Troubles in communication is made complex by the reality that few Japanese are good English conversant and foreigners as well do not speak good Japanese. In addition, Japanese people hardly use body language, as they are very motionless and unusual to make feedback. In order to check the situation it is necessary to ask several questions for understanding. To further clearly understand each other, clarification is best to be undertaken in order to make problem-solving and decision-making prompt. Culture in Canada Canada, often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"nation of nationsÃ¢â¬ , is twice the geographical area of the United States with approximately 30 million people living in it. It was founded by the rich heritage of French and English with combination from non-French and English countries. Canada has two official languages, English and French. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national advantage is its cultural diversity, which is the reason for prohibiting bias against person on the basis of race, color, religion, or gender. Canada takes pleasure in a society that is open and relatively free of class difference. Citizens of the country are proud that all of them enjoy equal rights and respect and dislike remarks that lack respect to anyone coming from a specific background. Canada has the highest per capita level of postsecondary education participation of any industrialized country. The entire universities are publicly funded institutions; however students still shell out for tuition fees. National and provincial support programs are in place to lend a hand to students in postsecondary schooling. Christianity is the primary religion. The principal language in Canada is English. There are however, at least three varieties of French that are acknowledged: Quebecois in Quebec, Franco-Manitoban all the way through Manitoba and for the most part in the St. Boniface area of Winnipeg, and Acadian. The Italian language is the third language in Canada owing to a huge arrival of Italian immigrants after World War 2.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The Revolution in Russia In the last years of World War I a Revolution in Russia overthrew the Tsar and eventually led to the establishment of the world's first avowedly Communist state. The Soviet Union that rose out of the ashes of the Russian Empire would play a critical role in the events of the remainder of the century. A useful way of understanding the course of the Russian Revolution in 1917 is to compare it to a wildfire. In this metaphor, the instability of late Imperial Russia and the deep dissatisfaction of large segments of its population provided plentiful fuel for the fire that was sparked by the disastrous course of the First World War. Although the vast majority of the population was initially cheered when the Imperial government went up in flames, moderates soon began to worry that they too would be consumed if the blaze was allowed to spread. Their caution backfired, however, as they gradually lost the respect and trust of the population. As their authority broke down, the inferno spread out of control, benefiting radicals willing to go along with the growing anarchy and support the demands of the people. The militant Bolshevik Party was the group best able to ride the firestorm into power, which they seized in the famous October Revolution. They went along with the revolution until it burned itself out, and were then able to consolidate their position as the absolute rulers of the country. Dead Wood Despite being one of the world's largest, most powerful and most feared nations, late Imperial Russia rested on unstable foundations. The peasantry, the industrial workers and progressives were all deeply dissatisfied. Moreover, they had little hope of improving their situation through peaceful means. ... ...206. 12 Figes, People's Tragedy, 360. 13 Ibid., 430. 14 This phrase is often attributed to either Lenin or his associate Leon Trotsky. 15 1917 god v derevne Vospominaniia krestian (Moscow, 1967), 3 16 Except for a temporary decline during the harvest period. See Lazar Volin, A Century of Russian Agriculture: From Alexander II to Khrushev (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970), 125. 17 1917 god v derevne, 3 18 Ibid., 4. 19 Figes, People's Tragedy, 433-434. 20 N. N. Sukhanov, The Russian Revolution, ed. Joel Carmichael (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 470. 21 See David Schaich, The Bolsheviks, the Masses, and October for further discussion. 22 History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1960), 260-261. 23 See David Schaich, The Bolsheviks, the Masses, and October for further discussion.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
1. 0Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Introduction 1. 1Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Martha? s Vineyard Ã¢â¬â where old traditions are still of value Martha? s Vineyard is a small island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, USA. The island has a permanent population of about 6000 inhabitants. It is separated from the mainland by the Atlantic Ocean and there are no big businesses or any McDonald to be found on the island. Here, life is not as hectic as on the mainland and old traditions are still of value. The inhabitants have a way of showing their connection and dedication to their homeland, which is also a way of identifying themselves.This term paper will be about sound changes in connection with social identity. I will examine the innovative study of language variation and change in the islands community, observed and examined by William Labov (1963). I will analyze and discuss the study made by Labov. Labov? s study is based on the characteristic sound pattern discovered while listening to the inhabitants of Martha? s Vineyard. This sound change has a focus on the centralization of diphthongs. Centralization is the phonological change in which a vowel becomes more central than normal (Lawrence Trask 2000 : 53).Diphthong is a vowel sound which is pronounced by quickly moving from one vowel position to another (Deckert, Vickers 2011 : 33). The sound changes made by inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, observed by Labov were: /ay/ as in fight, right and sight and /aw/ as in loud and about. Labov? s observations exposed that the centralized diphthongs only occurred in a particular linguistic context. Some groups used the sound change more than others. The group of fishermen was among these. Labov also observed that some inhabitants purposely did not pronounce the diphthongs differently to people from the mainland.Having looked at different social factors, as for example, age, ethnic group and occupation it became obvious that the attitude towards the island was an essential aspect to explain this phenomenon. The decision whether or not to use the island or the mainland pronunciation depended the attitude towards MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, whether or not being positive or negative. Labov named this phenomenon Ã¢â¬Å"island identityÃ¢â¬ (1963). To understand what Ã¢â¬Å"island identityÃ¢â¬ is it is important to define the term Ã¢â¬Å"identityÃ¢â¬ . What is identity and how do we identify ourselves?Can there be a connection between identity and speech? In this term paper I will attempt to answer these questions. 2. 0 The study, sociolinguistic pattern and meaning 2. 1 Background knowledge MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard is divided into two parts, which are the up-island and the down-island. By the time Labov made this study, the island had approximately 6000 inhabitants. The majority lived in an area of the down-island which contains of three small towns, called Vineyard Haven, Oak Bluffs and Edgartown. The remaining inhabitants lived in the rur al up-island area with only a few villages (Labov 1972: 5).The inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard were divided into four major ethnic groups. The main group was the descendants of old families with English origin. The second major group was descendants of Portuguese origin who migrated from the Azores and the Cap Verde Islands. The third group was descendants of remnant native Americans. The last group consists of inhabitants of various origins, who were of no relevance for this study (Labov 1972: 6). Another group became relevant for this study. This was the group of summer visitors who came in large groups in June and July.There would be around 42. 000 visitors on the island every summer (Labov 1972: 6). It could be a possibility that the summer visitors brought the sound change from the mainland to the island, which would mean that this group would have the major influence on the pronunciation of the diphthongs /ay/ and /aw/ but it becomes clear that the influence of visitor s are not as obvious as it might seem, since Labov only mentioned that this group had an indirect influence. To clarify this, it is essential to have a look at the economic situation of the island.In 1960 Martha's Vineyard was the poorest of all countries of Massachusetts and this was not only due to the high unemployment rate in Massachusetts back then (Labov 1972: 27). The islands? major industry was the fishing industry on the up-island. The large-scale of fishing went out of New Bedford on the Grand Banks and as a result it became harder to keep this industry going (Labov 1972: 27). It became almost impossible for the fishermen to make a living from their wages and their families became dependent on two earnings. Another problem forced the economic and psychological pressure.Convenience goods were at a very high price (Labov 1972: 28) and the goods were brought on the island with ferry from the mainland. This transport was expensive and permitted the salesmen to expand the price s of their goods. Some would say that the constantly growing tourism came as a blessing for the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, but at the same time it also became a curse, especially for the fishermen who felt very connected to the island and the traditions connected to it. For them it was difficult to accept the increasing dependence on tourism.The following observations and results are of importance in order to understand the connection between the above mentioned background information and the language variation in this study. 2. 2 Accomplishment by Labov and its meaning for the inhabitants In 1963, as the study of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard was relized, Labov observed a striking way of pronouncing words such a fight, right and sight, and words such as loud and about. This striking ways of pronunciation clearly diverged from the near parts of the mainland (Meyerhoff 2006: 16f. ). The inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard pronounced the diphthongs /ay/ and /aw/ in a more entral position which is a phonological change termed centralization. In order to figure out why many inhabitants used the centralized diphthongs, Labov deliberated an interview schedule in which /ay/ and /aw/ frequently occurred (Labov 1972: 12). Here Labov did not only put his focus on the linguistic aspect but on the social aspect as well. This means that Labov did not only put focus on the language but furthermore he wanted to examine the reasons for this sound change and in which way it was used in a social context and by whom. Why did some speakers use the centralized diphthongs more than others?This is why this study by Labov is not just of study of linguistics but also counts as a sociolinguistic study (Deckert, Vickers 2011: 1). Labov started asking inhabitants questions concerning their lives on the island. He also recorded them while they were reading lists of words naturally containing /ay/ and /aw/ sounds out loud (Meyerhoff 2006: 17). He interviewed 69 inhabitants of different ages, occupation, ethnic groups and from different geographical distribution. The table underneath is taken from Labov? s study and shows age levels and numbers of inhabitants using the centralized vowels /ay/ and /aw/:Table 1 (Labov 1972: 22) |age |(ay) |(aw) | |75- |25 |22 | |61-75 |35 |37 | |46-60 |62 |44 | |31-45 |81 |88 | |14-30 |37 |46 | Having a look at this table, it appears that inhabitants from the age of thirty-one up to age forty-five frequently tended to centralize the diphthongs. However, inhabitants younger than thirty-one and older than forty-five, did not have a high use of the centralized diphthongs.This means that the sound change could not only be dependent on the age of inhabitants being interviewed. Therefore Labov focused on other social factors which might have an effect on the production of this sound change. He interviewed inhabitants from different parts of residence, hereby people form the up-island as well as people living at the down-island. T he statistics shown below demonstrates different cities on MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard. It also shows the numbers of inhabitants from these cities using the centralized diphthongs: Table 2 (Labov 1972: 25) Ã |(ay) |(aw) | |Down-island |35 |33 | |Edgartown |48 |55 | |Oak |33 |10 | |BluffsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | | | |Vineyard HavenÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |24 |33 | |Up-islandÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |61 |66 | |Oak |71 |99 | |BluffsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | | | |N. 35 |13 | |TisburyÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | | | |West TisburyÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |51 |51 | |ChilmarkÃ Ã Ã Ã |100 |81 | |Gay HeadÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |51 |81 | This t able clearly shows that the inhabitants living on the up-island used the sound change more frequently than inhabitants living on the down-island, especially the inhabitants of the town Chilmark. In Chilmark they were shown o have a unique tendency of centralized diphthongs. The up-island was more of a rural area and it was known for its fishing industry. Most fishermen were living and working in Chilmark. The following table shows the centralization by the different occupational groups observed by Labov. . Table 3 (Labov 1972: 26) |Ã |(ay) |(aw) | |Fishermen |100 |79 | |Farmers |32 |22 | |Others |41 |57 |According to this table which shows the usage of centralized diphthong by fishermen, farmers and other occupations, shows it becomes clear that the fishermen were the one group who most frequently made use of centralization. Some of the farmers and people of other occupations also used this sound change but their numbers were strikingly low compared to the numbers of fishermen us ing the centralization. When comparing the results of all three tables it becomes obvious that the Chilmark fishermen in the middle working age level were using the centralization more frequently than any other groups on the island.However, hereby it is still not revealed why this group of inhabitants at this age and living and working in that one place where the fishing industry still played a big role in the island economy (Labov 1972: 29), were using the sound change more frequently than the other groups of inhabitants. It is central to understand the meaning and importance of the fishing industry for the inhabitants and the island itself to fully understand the interaction of social and linguistic patterns. Most of the fishermen from Chilmark felt deeply connected to the island since most of them were descendants of the old families (Labov 1972: 28).The fishing industry used to be a major part of the economy, before the large-scale fishing went out of New Bedford on the Grand Ba nks (Labov 1972: 27). The fishermen were proud to be independent, to stand on their own feet and earn their living with their own bare hands. Fishing was an old tradition on this island (Labov 1972: 29) but as an ever-growing number of summer visitors came to the island a big part of the fishing industry moved away and the inhabitants became forced to be more dependent on tourism. Chilmark changed from the traditional fishing industry to modern tourism.Many of the inhabitants accepted but the fishermen had a hard time acknowledging this change (Labov 1972: 28). They made their living from fishing. For these men fishing was not just a job, but it was also a way of living and an old tradition they did not want to give up. Two brothers from Edgartown which were also fishermen were among the interviewed. They both had a tendency to centralize the diphthongs very frequently (Labov 1972: 30). These two brothers were the last decendants from the old families (Labov 1972: 30).If they were t o leave the island, there would be no descendant left in Edgartown and there would be no one to keep up the traditions of the old families. These two brothers are another example that clarifies the importance of the fishing industry. It also clarifies that the Chilmark fishermen as well as the fishermen from Edgartown shared social orientation. They felt deeply connected to the island which was their home. For this reason they also both shared an aversion to the many summer visitors. The summer visitors would invade the cities of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, and thereby the growing tourism would invade ajor a part in the economy. Though many of the inhabitants appreciate the tourism, the fishermen suffered more and more under economic as well as psychological pressure (Labov 1972: 28). The dependence on summer visitors grew and thereby the independence of the fishermen was reduced. The more inhabitants lived a traditional way of life the more they used the centralization. This fact dem onstrates the relationship to the diphthong centralization and the social orientation. Labov learned that another social factor had an outstanding influence on the sound change.He observed attitude towards the island, whether it was positive or negative, was of reason for the usage of this sound change. Labov found out that high school students and their use of the centralization depended on their plan whether or not to stay on the island. He therefore interviewed students from Martha's Vineyard Regional High School. The students who wanted to stay on the island showed a much higher use of the centralized diphthongs than the students who wanted to leave the island after finishing school (Labov 1972: 32).Not only inhabitants from the old families had a high use of the centralization, but Portuguese at the age of thirty-one to forty-five revealed to have a very high use of the sound change in comparison to the other age groups (Labov 1972: 26). The Portuguese of this age group belonge d to the third and fourth generation. This generation was the first one which had entirely adopted the ways of life on the island (Labov 1972: 33). They too felt deeply connected to the island, their home.The middle aged Portuguese showed a higher use of centralization than the younger Portuguese, even though the younger Portuguese showed a higher centralization than the young inhabitants with English origin (Labov 1972: 26). This phenomenon can be explained by the attitude towards the island. Most of the young inhabitants with English origin wanted to leave the island opposed to the majority of the young Portuguese who wanted to stay on the island (Labov 1972: 26). This proves that social attitude towards MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard was to blame for the use of the centralization.In relation to the social attitude the term Ã¢â¬Å"island identityÃ¢â¬ becomes important. To fully understand this term it is important to explain what Ã¢â¬Å"identityÃ¢â¬ really means. To define what Ã¢ â¬Å"identityÃ¢â¬ really is, is easier said than done. Identity can be a name of a person but it can also be a way of behaving or other details like gestures or mimics. In Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English by Langenscheidt, there are more than a few explanations. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"The qualities and attitudes that a person or a group of people have, that make them different from other peopleÃ¢â¬ (Langenscheidt 2006: 805).The term Ã¢â¬Å"national/cultural/social identityÃ¢â¬ is listed in this dictionary as well and is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a strong feeling of belonging to particular group, race, etc. Ã¢â¬ (Langenscheidt 2006: 805). After having studied Labov`s observations, his results and defining the term identity, it becomes clear that the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard used the sound change to identify themselves. They created an access to their identity with the help of language, and used the centralization as a way to differentiate themselves from sum mer visitors. This strong bond to their home, the island, is termed by Labov as Ã¢â¬Å"island identityÃ¢â¬ . Island identityÃ¢â¬ describes the use of the centralization as an expression of the strong connection, the inhabitant? s ancestry and their home land. Inhabitants who used this sound change also revealed their attitude and connection to the island. The ones using the sound change were the ones who felt deeply connected and identified themselves with the island. Thereby the sound change became an indicator of the inhabitant's attitude. The inhabitants who showed a negative attitude towards the island the ones who did not feel connected to it and wanted to leave, did not use this centralization.They simply did not identify themselves with the island. On behalf of those inhabitants who had a positive attitude towards the island the language variant hold prestige. For some inhabitants the sound change had a higher status than for others, although the speakers were not always aware of the importance of the sound change. This is the reason why there are two types of prestige which are termed overt and covert prestige (Meyerhoff 2006: 37). Overt prestige is linked with language variants that speakers use for special reasons.The speakers using the overt prestige have the motive of sounding, for example, politer or even more educated, which means that they obviously are aware of using that variant (Meyerhoff 2006: 37). For the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard the covert prestige played a central role. The speakers who were using the centralization did not want to sound nicer or better than other people on the island. This pronunciation was not the standard or the general norm but it was based on group identity and the way the inhabitants differentiated themselves from other inhabitants and summer visitors. 3. 0 ConclusionThrough the study of Labov, he demonstrated that social factors play a role in how people speak and he also clarified the deep soci al function language has to define sn identity. Labov? s study was of importance for the social linguistic. The centralized diphthongs observed by Labov were most frequently used by the thirty-one up to forty-five age group and was typically observed used by people who lived and worked on the island, who felt deeply connected to the island. The connection between the positive attitude towards life on the island and the usage of centralization was outstanding.The inhabitants who lived a traditional way of life, had the highest degree of centralization. Since being a fisherman was a traditional occupation, this means that the main part of the inhabitants on the up-island had a higher use of the sound change since that was the place where the fishing industry was based. The down-island was the area where less people were using the centralization. It consist of small towns and these towns were the attraction for the increasing number of summer visitors.Consequently, it can be said that the centralization is an indicator of solidarity. A way of showing where you belong and that you are proud of your home and its traditions. For the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard it was also a way to oppose to the people of the mainland and the new service economy. This sound change made them stand out. By centralizing the diphthongs the inhabitants of island created a way to connect their social identity to language. The language functions as a tool to stick out of the crowd. It is as a reminder of their roots. . 0 Bibliography Deckert, Sharon K. ; Vickers, Caroline H. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 2011. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Labov, William. Sociolinguistic Patterns. 1972. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Langenscheidt. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 2006 Meyerhoff, Miriam. Introducing Sociolinguistics. 2006. Abingdon: Routledge Trask, Robert Lawrence. The Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics. 2 000. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd
Monday, January 6, 2020
Across the United States, summer vacation is a tradition cherished by students and families alike. I myself find that the last few months of school end up turning into a countdown to carefree days. Though cherished, summer vacation can have detrimental effects. Students end up losing some retained knowledge of math and reading during the respite. This evidence has led the country in a debate of whether the summer tradition should still exist. While some believe the learning detriments should lead to the institution of year-round school programs, I believe that summer vacation is far too beneficial with its potential to foster an environment in which oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and creativity can develop. Yes, summer vacation does, in fact, contribute to a loss of learning in core subjects such as math and reading. 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